Vanadium in the form of Organic Vanadium Complex, delivers this potential mineral in a safe and more absorbable form, with a therapeutic effect up to 50%, which is greater than any of the inorganic forms.

Research has revealed that inorganic vanadium supplements such as vanadyl sulfate are poorly absorbed and induce gastronintestinal discomfort in humans. Bis-glycinato oxo vanadium (BGOV) an organic complex of glycine and vanadium does not cause such discomforts.

Nutritional Significance of Vanadium

Vanadium belongs to a group of biologically important metals like chromium, iron, cobalt, copper and zinc, which are termed as "transition" elements, and have a natural tendency to form complexes with organic compounds called "coordination compounds" that serve important biological functions. The potential role of vanadium in human health is to mimic insulin action.

The symptoms of deficiency as reported in published research include:

Higher abortions / perinatal mortality

Depressed growth (chickens / rats)

Bone abnormalities (goats and chickens)

Altered thyroid metabolism (rats)

Elevated serum beta-lipoproteins, cholesterol (goats and chickens)

Elevated serum creatinine (goats)

Elevated plasma and bone iron (rats)

Role of glycine in human nutrition

Glycine is an amino acid found in the protein of all life forms. Glycine is not considered as essential amino acid, i.e., the cells in the body can synthesize sufficient amount of glycine to meet physiological requirement. However, glycine is of major importance in the synthesis of proteins, peptides, purines, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), nucleic acids, porphyrine, hemoglobin, glutathione, creatine, bile salts, one carbon fragments, glucose, glycogen, and L-serine and other amino acids. Glycine is also a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Glycine and gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS.

Recently, a glycine-gated chloride channel has been identified in neurophils that can attenuate increases in intracellular calcium ions and diminish oxidant damage mediated by these white blood cells. Thus, glycine may be a novel antioxidant.

Glycine is reported to be an ergogenic aid in sports nutrition, helping to reduce fatigue. Glycine is also reported to enhance human growth hormone production, leading to improved muscle mass

Together with another amino acid, arginine, glycine produces creatine (a compound forming high energy complexes in the body).

Glycine reacts with bile acids to form bile salts, which serve as detergents in solubilizing dietary fat, allowing for the absorption of fat soluble nutrients.

Possible role of Glycine in management of schizophrenia

Glycine first attracted interest in the medical research community for its reputed ability to dampen reflex excitability in the CNS. A pilot study of its effects on sever chronic leg spasticity (most of the subjects were suffering from chronic multiple sclerosis) yielded improvement in spasticity and mobility of the lower limbs, rated at about 25% overall. Other researchers have since reported that glycine can potentiate some but not all anticonvulsant drugs in some animal models. It has also been shown to prevent some experimentally produced seizures.

The ability of glycine to potentiate NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission raised the possibility of its use in the management of neuroleptic-resistant negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

In the CNS, there exist strychnine-sensitive glycine binding sites as well as strychnine-insensitive glycine binding sites. The strychnine-insensitive glycine-binding site is located on the NMDA receptor complex. The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor complex is comprised of a chloride channel and is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. The putative antispastic activity of supplemental glycine could be mediated by glycine's binding to strychnine-sensitive binding sites in the spinal cord. This would result in increased chloride conductance and consequent enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission

Glycine may be indicated to help alleviate the symptoms of spasticity. An indication for potentiating some anti-convulsant drugs and preventing some seizures could emerge, as could an indication for its use in managing schizophrenia.

High-dose glycine may be beneficial in the management of enduring negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

Vanadium’s role in managing blood sugar levels and hence diabetes

Research over the past century, which included pre-clinical laboratory trials and clinical studies, validated that vanadium may activate insulin receptors, and through this effect exert insulin-like action. Both pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that vanadium has a potential role in the management of both Type I and Type II diabetes. Vanadium's insulin-like behavior seems to improve glucose management in insulin-dependent diabetics. In Type II diabetics, the mineral improves glucose tolerance and lowers blood glucose levels. Vanadium has also been shown to inhibit the production of cholesterol. Thus vanadium supplementation has a potential role in maintaining blood sugar levels in diabetics.

Vanadium compounds are being studied as potentially orally active replacements for insulin.

Bis-glycinato oxovanadium (BGOV), was studied in a rat model of streptozocin induced diabetes. BGOV was administered for 15 days to diabetic rats and to healthy controls in drinking water, in a dose of 30mg/100ml,. As a result of the 15 days regimen, diabetic rats decreased fluid intake from an average 584 ml per kg/day to 270 ml/kg/day, blood glucose levels decreased from 254 mg/dl to 118 mg/dl, cholesterol decreased from 204 to 107 mg/dl and triglycerides decreased from 164 to 97 mg/dl. In addition glycogen and hexokinase levels increased significantly, while lactate dehydrogenase and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase decreased significantly in course of treatment with BGOV.

In the BGOV treated diabetic animals the level of tissue glycogen was doubled as compared to the diabetic control. Interestingly, the healthy controls receiving BGOV also gained the tissue glycogen levels as compared to the untreated healthy controls.


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