Copper Lysinate is an organic complex of copper with the essential amino acid lysine. It represents an optimal and readily available delivery source of both copper and lysine.

Copper lysinate is valued in geriatric nutrition and plays key roles in protein metabolism, wound healing. It counteracts the negative effects of free radicals.

Copper lysinate as a supplement of copper is better absorbed, better retained and found more beneficial when compared to the inorganic salts.

Copper, an essential nutrient, has a key role in the utilization of iron during the formation of hemoglobin. Copper functions primarily as a component of metalloenzymes (Cuproenzymes) essential for the metabolic processes and also activates other enzymes.

Supplemental L-lysine has putative anti-herpes simplex virus activity. There is preliminary research suggesting that it may have some anti-osteoporotic activity.

L-Lysine also plays important roles in the absorption of calcium, in wound healing and in maintaining the structural integrity of connective tissues.

The copper lysinate is a bioavailable and safe delivery form of Copper. It is a constituent of the enzyme "Superoxide dismutase" (SOD).

Structure

Requirements

The Food and Nutrition Board of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences has recommended the following "Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake" (ESSADI) values for copper:

Age (Year)

ESSADI (Milligrams)

Infants

0.4 – 0.7

1 – 3

0.7 – 1.0

4 – 6

1.0 – 1.5

7 – 10

1.0 – 2.0

11 – 18

1.5 – 2.5

Adults

1.5 – 3.0

Role of Copper in animal and human nutrition
A copper deficient diet results in reduced activity of the copper containing enzymes, superoxide dimustase-which plays an important role in the protection of tissues against lipid peroxidation. Copper when supplemented as copper amino acid chelate, significantly increased the superoxide dimustase activity. On the other hand, when CuSO4 was used as copper supplement, the SOD activity decreased indicating poorer absorption of copper. In fact more copper was given as CuSO4 to the latter group.

In the human body, copper is predominantly found in the skeletal muscle and bones as well as in smaller amounts in the skin, liver, and brain.

Copper is essential for the formation and maintenance of connective tissues and skeletal mineralization as part of Lysyl oxidase which catalyzes cross –linking of collagen thus playing a pivotal role in structural tissue integrity

A trace element in human and animal nutrition, copper has had a long history of medicinal uses as well. In the human body, copper is predominantly found in the musculoskeletal system including skeletal muscle and bones as well as in smaller amounts in the skin, liver and brain.

Copper functions primarily as a component of metalloenzymes (Cuproenzymes) essential for the metabolic processes and also activates other enzymes

Most people are aware of the importance of iron in preventing anemia, but few know that copper, another trace mineral also plays a critical role. Without small amounts of copper circulating in the body, iron cannot be absorbed from the intestinal tract or released from its storage sites in the liver and elsewhere. Copper is also necessary to make hemoglobin, the iron-protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen to all the body’s cells.

Functions of Copper

Metabolism: Copper is a component of several enzyme systems that are instrumental in energy metabolism. It is also a component of at least fifteen proteins (amino acids).

Maintaining the skin: Copper is instrumental in the formation of collagen, the protein building block of connective tissue, skin, and bones. It is also involved in making melanin, the pigment that gives skin and hair their color

Nerve health: Copper is needed to build and maintain myelin, the protective sheath surrounding nerve.

Wound healing: Copper plays a role in clot formation and promotes healing of cuts, burns and other wounds

Building and maintaining various organs: Copper is required to form and maintain the skeleton (bones, tendons, and connective tissue), cells of the brain and spinal cord, and blood vessels.

Importance of l-lysine in human nutrition

In addition to being necessary for the synthesis of proteins, lysine is integral to the production of carnitine, which in turn is essential to the oxidation of fatty acids in the body.

Besides being essential for normal body function, L-Lysine has been shown to effectively suppress the Herpes Simplex virus. L-Lysine also plays important roles in the absorption of calcium, in wound healing and in maintaining the structural integrity of connective tissues.

Recent in vitro and preclinical data showed that it is a potential activator of wound repair.

One study verified the ability of L-lysine supplements (400 to 800 mg/day) to significantly enhance the intestinal absorption of calcium (From 3.0 g of calcium chloride) in 74 osteoporotic women. Additionally, the urinary excretion of calcium after a calcium-rich meal was reduced in these subjects.

L-lysine’s popularity as a nutritional supplement arose as a result of some studies suggesting that the amino acid may decrease the recurrence rate of some infected with herpes simplex virus.

In addition to being necessary for the synthesis of proteins, lysine is integral to the production of carnitine, which in turn is essential to the oxidation of fatty acids in the body.

Proteins of the herpes simplex virus are rich in L-arginine, and tissue culture studies indicate an enhancing effect on viral replication when the amino acid ratio of L-arginine to L-lysine is high in the tissue culture media. When the ratio of L-lysine to L-arginine is high viral replication and the cytopathogenicity of herpes simplex virus have been found to be inhibited. A number of clinical studies have found that lysine is useful in preventing and sometimes shortening outbreaks of herpes simplex infections.

L-lysine may facilitate the absorption of calcium from the small intestine.

There is one study suggesting that supplemental lysine can both enhance intestinal absorption and improve renal conservation of absorbed calcium and that it might thus be helpful in osteoporosis.

Advantages of Copper Supplementation as Copper lysinate

In organic salts of copper such as copper chloride and copper sulfate are poorly absorbed and have been associated with impaired absorption of iron and zinc.

The effects of feeding different forms of copper to copper-depleted heifers were evaluated in a long-term study. Copper lysinate providing 16mg Copper /kg feed was found to be more beneficial than an equivalent amount of copper sulfate.

Another study evaluated the utilization of copper by rats fed copper proteinate, copper lysinate or copper sulfate. It was observed that the copper utilization from copper proteinate and copper lysinate was higher, based on the copper content in the liver (p<0.05). The rats fed organic copper complexes showed higher levels of iron and zinc (P< 0.05) than the rats fed copper sulfate, suggesting that organic copper complexes are absorbed by a mechanism different from that of inorganic copper salts. This pathway does not interfere with the metabolism of iron and zinc.

Another study evaluated the relative benefits of organically complexed copper and inorganic copper supplements (at levels of about 10ppm in feed) in calves subjected to stress induction. Calves fed copper lysinate complex had 53% greater apparent copper absorption and increased copper retention (p<0.05)

In a comparative study with copper study with copper sulfate, copper-amino acid complexes such as copper lysinate are reported to be better protected against the inhibitory effects of L-cysteine and L-ascorbic acid on copper absorption in chicks.


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