Magnesium is found in significant quantities throughout the body and used for numerous purposes, including muscle relaxation, blood clotting, and the manufacture of ATP-the body’s main energy molecule. ATP is produced during the Krebs Cycle, which is the major biochemical energy producing cycle in the cell’s mitochondria. Malate, the anion of malic acid, is one of the key components of this cycle. Magnesium Malate plays key roles in the manufacture of ATP. This ready availability of both magnesium and malate in a single entity provides unique properties to magnesium malate.
Structure

Requirements

The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the United States National Academy of Sciences has recommended the following Adequate Intake (AI) and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) values for magnesium

Age (Year)

AI (milligrams/day)

Infants

0 – 6 months

30

7 – 12 months

75

Children

RDA (milligrams/day)

1 – 3 years

80

4 – 8 years

130

Boys

9 – 13 years

240

4 – 18 years

410

Girls

9 – 13 years

240

4 – 18 years

360

Men

19 – 30 years

400

31 – 70 + years

420

Women

19 – 30 years

310

31 – 70 + years

320

Pregnancy

14 – 18 years

400

19 – 30 years

350

31 – 50 years

380

Lactation

14 – 18 years

360

19 – 30 years

310

31 – 50 years

320

Nutritional significance of Magnesium in human body
Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It is found to be essential to build bones and teeth and numerous metabolic functions.

It is commonly referred to as "Nature’s Calcium channel-blocker ". It has the ability to block calcium from entering muscle and heart cells. This may form the basis for magnesium’s effects on migraine headaches and high blood pressure. Magnesium may be useful for protecting the ears against hearing loss caused by exposure to loud noise, reducing the incidence of kidney stones and perhaps reducing hypertension.

Recent research indicates the magnesium deficiency may be a factor in the development of atherosclerosis and Coronary artery diseases –the major cause of heart attacks.

Several studies also suggest that magnesium may be useful for dysmenorrhea (menstrual cramps) and symptoms of PMS (premenstrual syndrome), including menstrual migraines.

Magnesium malate has putative antifibromyalgic activity. Magnesium works with calcium and potassium to regulate blood pressure.

Malic acid in human nutrition

Malic acid, an alpha-hydroxy organic acid, is sometimes referred to as a fruit acid. This is because, malic acid is found in apples and other fruits. It is also found in plants and animals, including humans. In fact, malic acid, in the form of its anion malate, is a key intermediate in the major biochemical energy-producing cycle in cells known as the citric acid or Krebs cycle located in the cells’ mitochondria.

Malic acid is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract from whence it is transported via the portal circulation to the liver. There are a few enzymes that metabolize malic acid. Malic enzyme catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate to pyruvate with concomitant reduction of the cofactor NAD + (oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) or NADP + (Oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Phosphate). These reactions require the divalent cations magnesium or manganese.

Magnesium Malate has good taste-blending characteristics that would make it an ideal nutritional supplement in functional drinks. Magnesium malate acts as a synergist to antioxidants thus prolonging the shelf life the foods/ drinks fortified with magnesium malate.


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