Calcium Citrate Malate

 

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body. Of the two to three pounds of calcium in the average body, 99 percent is stored in the bones and teeth where it helps build strong, dense bones and aids in the development and maintenance of healthy teeth. The remaining one percent plays a crucial role in muscle contraction, blood clotting, regulation of blood pressure, nerve transmission, supports normal function of the cardiovascular system and supports a healthy pregnancy.

The Calcium citrate malate is a metastable salt representing a soluble form of calcium. It is considerably more soluble than calcium citrate or calcium malate. Thus, this calcium salt can be added to neutral as well as acid foods in a soluble form and be an effective supplement. Due to this property, it finds application in making beverages nutritionally supplemented with calcium.

Citrates and Malates are potential energy substrate molecules. Both Malic acid and Citric acid are alpha hydroxy carboxylic acids and the corresponding anions are key intermediates in the major biochemical energy-producing cycle in cells known as Krebs cycle.

Requirements

The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the United States National Academy of Sciences has recommended the following Adequate Intake (AI) and Recommended Dietary

Allowance (RDA) values for magnesium:
The Calcium Dietary Reference Intake for adults older than 50 was raised in 1997 from 1,000 mg to 1,200 mg to reflect new information about calcium’s role in bone health.

U.S. Calcium Dietary Reference Intakes, 1997
Group Adequate Intake (mg/day)
Infants
Birth - 6 months 200
7 months - 1 year 270
Children
1 - 5 years 500
4 - 8 years 800
9 - 18 years 1,300
Adults
19 - 50 years 1,000
Over 50 years 1,200
Pregnant and Lactation
14 - 18 years 1,300
19 and over 1,000

Nutritional significance of Calcium

Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the human body, making up about 2 percent of total weight. About 99 percent of this calcium is stored in the bones and teeth, and the remaining 1 percent circulates in the blood and is found in muscles, nerves, and other soft tissues.

Only bout 20 to 30 percent of dietary calcium is actually absorbed from the intestinal tract into the bloodstream.

The numerous functions of calcium include the following:

Building bones and teeth: Calcium gives their strength and hardness. Although bones appear to be rock hard and static, in reality, bone tissue changes constantly as calcium (and other minerals) moves in and out – a process called remodeling.

Controlling muscle function and maintaining the heartbeat: Muscle tissue especially the heart, require small amounts of calcium in order to contract and relax normally.

Transmitting nerve impulses: Calcium is needed in order for a nerve cell to transmit its messages to other nerves or to muscles. In addition, calcium inside cells transmits messages to special receptors. Some of these messages are instrumental in controlling blood pressure and other body f

Promoting blood clotting and wound healing: Calcium is one of fourteen essential factors that are directly involved in the formation of blood clots and start the process of wound healing.

Miscellaneous other function: Acts as a coenzyme in various metabolic activities, controls the permeability of membranes to allow nutrients to pass through cell walls, and helps synthesize hormones and enzymes necessary for digestion. Recent research indicates that calcium may also protect against colon cancer.

Calcium is useful in preventing and treating osteoporosis. It may also be effective in reducing that risk of colorectal cancer. It may be of benefit in some with hypertension and may diminish some of the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). A recent preliminary study has suggested that calcium may help reduce the risk of obesity.

High calcium intake also reduces the recurrence rate of colonic or rectal tumors, especially in women with high-fat diets. Although no one is sure why calcium appears protective, it may be that it binds with potentially carcinogenic fatty acids and bile, rendering them harmless.

Solubilization and ionization by stomach acid is key to bioavailability of supplemental calcium to the body. Calcium citrate malte is easily ionizable and hence increases the bioavailability of calcium.

In many post-menopausal women, who need supplementation of calcium for osteoporosis there is a severe deficiency of stomach acid which leads to poor absorption of Calcium when supplemented as Calcium carbonate. With Calcium Citrate malate as supplement, 45% of calcium is absorbed, under the same conditions.

Epidemiological studies reveal an inverse relationship between blood pressure and calcium intake, and this effect relates to its benefit in pregnancy.

Nutritional significance of Malate

Malic acid, an alpha-hydroxy organic acid, is sometimes referred to as a fruit acid. This is because, malic acid is found in apples and other fruits. It is also found in plants and animals, including humans. In fact, malic acid, in the form of its anion malate, is a key intermediate in the major biochemical energy-producing cycle in cells known as the citric acid or Krebs cycle located in the cells’ mitochondria.

Nutritional significance of Citrate

Citrate is a naturally occurring substance in the body, a metabolic product formed at the beginning of the energy cycle. During the tricarboxylic acid cycle, carbohydrates, fatty acids and proteins are broken down to provide energy. Citrate being a "energy rich" moiety, helps to deliver the associated "mineral" nutrients and ensure its ready availability for absorption in the system.

Calcium citrate malate in functional drinks

Calcium citrate malate is useful in "food fortification" in functional, wellness and sports drinks. Calcium citrate malate is highly absorbable while simultaneously being safe and well-tolerated.


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